The demonstrative pronouns are shown in the following table.
The demonstrative are declined in all cases. Some adverbial cases are also possible.
Demonstrative pronouns can stand alone or be used with a noun. When used with a noun, the demonstrative pronoun is between a preposition and attributes.
preposition + demonstrative pronoun + attributes + noun
demonstrative pronoun + attributes + noun + postposition
The pronouns tämä 'this' and nämä 'these' are used to point out objects, people, or actions that are close to or within the reach of the speaker.
|Tämä on hauskaa!||This is funny!|
(The speaker is participating in an action that he or she likes.)
|Tämä kirja on uusi.||This book is new.|
(The speaker is holding the book in his or her hand or it is close to him or her.)
Tämä and nämä are declined according to the word they determine.
|tässä suuressa kirjassa||in this big book|
|näissä suurissa kirjoissa||in these big books|
|ennen tätä kaunista päivää||before this nice day|
|näiden kauniiden päivien jälkeen||after these nice days|
The pronouns tuo 'that' and nuo 'those' are used to point out objects, people, or actions that are far or not within the reach of the speaker, but they can be detected by the speaker.
|Tuo on hauskaa!||That is funny!|
(The speaker is watching an action that he or she likes.)
|Tuo kirja on uusi.||That book is new.|
(The speaker is seeing the book on the table, but he or she cannot reach it.)
Tuo and nuo are declined according to the word they determine.
|tuohon vanhaan taloon||into that old house|
|noista uusista autoista||out of those new cars|
|tuon synkän metsän keskellä||in the middle of that dark forest|
|ennen noita kiireisiä ihmisiä||before those hurry people|
The pronouns se 'it, the, such' and ne 'they, the, such' are used to point out objects, people, or actions that are unpresent or within the reach of the listener only.
|Se on hauskaa!||It is funny!|
(The speaker has heard of an action that he or she likes.)
|Se kirja on uusi.||The/That book is new.|
(The speaker is seeing the listener hold the book in his or her hand or the book is not present in the room where the speaker is.)
Se and ne are declined according to the word they determine.
|sille vanhalle pöydälle||onto the/that old table|
|niiden pienten lasten||of the/those little children|
|siihen viimeiseen päivään asti||until the/that last day|
|kesken niiden pitkien puheluiden||in the middle of the/those long telephone calls|